Types of Bone Grafts:
Autogenous bone grafts, also known as autografts, are harvested from your own bone. The bone is typically taken from the chin, upper or lower jaw, lower leg bone, hip, or the skull. Autogenous bone grafts have the advantage that contain live cells and that it will not be rejected by your inmune system. It’s the best kind of bone graft to reconstruct an area prior to implant placement.
However, one downside to the autograft is that it requires a second procedure to harvest bone from elsewhere in your body. This involves another area of surgery and possible discomfort.
What is Tooth Socket Preservation?
Tooth socket preservation is a common oral surgery procedure often performed following a tooth extraction. It’s purpose is to preserve the dimensions of the bone where a tooth was removed in preparation for the placement of a dental implant. Bone grafting also helps maintain and or even recreate the natural contour of the gums and jaw bone that may have been lost due to a tooth extraction, gum disease, trauma or for other reasons.
The alveolar ridge of the jaw is the bone that surrounds the roots of teeth. When a tooth is removed, an empty cavity is left in the alveolar ridge. After tooth extraction, at least 25 % of the width and height of the bone is lost. This could cause problems with implant placement for the implant to heal needs adequate bone. So to prepare the extraction site for a dental implant, the best quality and quantity of bone is mandatory to assure proper implant oseointegration.
How is the Tooth Socket Preservation Accomplished?
Tooth socket preservation is accomplished by placing synthetic bone graft material into the extraction site, right after the removal of the tooth. A collagen plug or membrane are needed to cover the bone and to protect it during the healing process. After the collagen membrane is placed, the gums are sutured together with a slowly reabsorbing suture material. Once the socket has healed the site is ready for dental implant placement. Typically four months after the bone grafting procedure, the area is ready to receive a dental implant.
Major & Minor Bone Grafting
Over a period of time, the jawbone associated with missing teeth atrophies or is reabsorbed. This often leaves a condition in which there is poor quality and quantity of bone suitable for placement of dental implants. In these situations, most patients are not candidates for placement of dental implants.
Today, we have the ability to grow bone where needed. This not only gives us the opportunity to place implants of proper length and width, it also gives us a chance to restore functionality and aesthetic appearance.
Major Bone Grafting
Bone grafting can repair implant sites with inadequate bone structure due to previous extractions, gum disease or injuries. The bone is either obtained from a tissue bank or your own bone is taken from the jaw, hip or tibia (below the knee). Sinus bone grafts are also performed to replace bone in the posterior upper jaw. In addition, special membranes may be utilized that dissolve under the gum and protect the bone graft and encourage bone regeneration. This is called guided bone regeneration or guided tissue regeneration.
Major bone grafts are typically performed to repair defects of the jaws. These defects may arise as a result of traumatic injuries, tumor surgery, or congenital defects. Large defects are repaired using the patients own bone. This bone is harvested from a number of different sites depending on the size of the defect. The skull (cranium), hip (iliac crest), and lateral knee (tibia), are common donor sites. These procedures are routinely performed in an operating room and require a hospital stay.